Typically Utilized with 1 piece Beadlock Type Fitting and Barrier Nylon/Rubber Hose

Technical Support


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THE RIGHT AMOUNT OF REFRIGERANT

We no longer use a sight glass in an A/C system to tell us when the system has the right amount of Refrigerant. With today’s refrigerants using 134a, if a system is over or under charge you will in most cases have poor louver temperature and premature compressor failures. If you don’t know how much liquid Freon is in an air conditioning system you should recover the Freon, evacuate and add the correct charge using the pressure temperature chart or the OEM specs for the correct charge.

CAUSES FOR COMPRESSOR FAILURES
EXCESSIVE HEAD PRESSURE


An A/C system that has been overcharge will have high head pressure. If an electric condenser is being used it will have electric motors and fan blades that bring fresh air across the condenser fins to remove heat from the refrigerant. When you have worn or burnt motors, or missing fan blades, you will stop the air intake and cause high head pressures. Remove and replace broken fan blades or burnt out motor(s). You can use a clamp on DC amp meter to see if the motor(s) are drawing to many amps. Also make sure that the condenser fins are not bent and they are clean, even a small amount of dirt on them acts like an insulator and you will not get the proper heat transfer.

If the system is equipped with a radiator mounted condenser be sure that the condenser fins are straight not bent also free of debris. Check to see if the engine fan blades are not damage and if equipped with a fan clutch be sure it’s working properly. Check the engine fan drive belt to see if it is tension properly. Do a visual check for cracks, a glazed belt or the wrong width.

LOW HEAD PRESSURE

An under charge A/C unit, Faulty Expansion valve, Evaporator coil freezing up due to plugged or dirty air filter. Will be some of the common things to look for. All Of The Above will Cause Premature Compressor Failure.


REFRIGERANT GAUGES

Be sure you have the proper Refrigerant manifold gauges for the specific refrigerant being used.
Before connecting Refrigerant manifold gauges to an A/C system do a visual check see that they are in good condition and that the refrigerant hoses are not frayed or damaged. Be sure that both High and Low manifold gauges are calibrated to zero.  

FALSE PRESSURE READINGS


  • Valve core depressors and hose gasket may be damaged 
  • Are the service hoses on the manifold set connected to the correct service ports
  • The system may have more than one type of Refrigerant in the system example (134a mixed with R12) check system with a Refrigerant identifier. 

WHY CHARGE WITH VAPOR NOT LIQUID?

When charging with a liquid you can cause severe damage to the compressor valves and have premature compressor failure. When charging an A/C system for example using a 30lb keg of 134a Refrigerant, place it in the upright position do not turn the cylinder upside down. You can purchase a heating blanket to wrap around the keg of Refrigerant to help change the liquid to gas this helps speed up the charging times.

COMPRESSOR CLUTCH FAILURE

(Common causes of compressor clutch failure)

  • Wrong voltage being supplied at the field coil: Take an amp draw of the electrical system to make sure you have the proper voltage that is needed for the field coil. Correct coil resistance is 3-5 ohms.

  • Air gap between the compressor face plate and pulley is wrong: Check with OEM manufacture specs use a feller gauge and add or remove a face plate shim.

  • Bearing failure: Wore out pulley bearing, Check for pulley play or listen for noises around the compressor clutch area.

  • Compressor drive belt is the wrong type, width or miss-aligned.

  • Lock compressor: Due to excessive high head pressure- Make sure the system is not over charged with Freon or oil.


CORRECT O-RINGS

Once upon a time only size mattered when choosing the correct o-ring now it’s the matter of material. R-12 used BUNA-N They was mostly black in color. Today’s refrigerants use an HNBR material green in color because of the higher head pressures and type of oil being used. Use HNBR o-rings for both R-12 and 134a.

WHY MUST I USE A VACCUM PUMP?

Moister and air are two of the most common problems in an A/C system. Moister will break the lubricant down and cause contamination and icing inside the system and form a blockage restricting Refrigerant flow. By using a good vacuum pump you will help eliminate this problem. Twin Eagle Distributing recommends using a 2 stage 6cfm vacuum pump. Always replace the receiver-drier when an A/C system is open or a new compressor is being installed.

RECIVER-DRIER / ACCUMULATOR

Whole purpose of a filter drier is to keep the moisture from mixing with the lubricant and causing contamination and debris to enter in the system. Most OEM manufactures recommends to remove & replace the drier or accumulator, in addition to evacuation, this will assure better performance. Make sure you’re new drier accumulator has the XH7 or XH9 desiccant that is recommended for all Refrigerants.

BLACK DEATH!

Black Death is a term used by A/C service techs, it is a result of the breakdown of the refrigerant oil in the system. This causes excusive wear in the compressor and as a result causes a black residue that is made up of solder flux and aluminum shavings from the old compressor. When this mixture cools it hardens in the condenser. Flushing the A/C system several times will not remove this black death you must replace the condenser or you will cause this mixture to liquefy and flow out to the liquid line restricting the orifice tube or expansion valve. Damaging the new compressor.


WHY FLUSH THE SYSTEM?

  • Burnt Out Compressor 
  • Plugged Expansion valve Or Orifice Tube 
  • Drier Desiccant Let loose 

Flushing removes any debris, oil that may be in the system getting it to ground zero. So when you install that new compressor, expansion valve or orifice tube it will not fail on you. Make sure you have the correct amount of oil in the system.

SAFETY SWITCHES IN AN A/C SYSTEM

High and low pressure switches are used to protect the compressor from becoming damaged due to excessive head pressure or from too little refrigerant in the system causing very high superheat and not lubricating or sufficiently cooling the compressor. (Never bypass these switches or severe damage to the A/C system can and will accrue.)  

THE THERMOSTAT SWITCH

The Thermostat switch is used to help regulate the outlet air temperature by cycling the compressor clutch on and off. It is also a safety device to insure that the evaporator coil dose not freeze up on cooler heat load days. If this switch should fail you may find that you have no voltage at the field coil or the compressor may never cycle out and cause the evaporator to freeze up. There are typically two types of thermostat switches used in off road A/C, Preset thermostat witch you do not adjust the temperature setting. And manual were you will have a knob so that you can adjust when to cycle the compressor on and off. The thermostat probe should be placed 3 to 6 inches from the expansion valve make sure you have enough probe in the coil if you place the thermostat probe in the top of the evaporator coil it should be at least in the middle of the coil. If you place it in the front also make sure its in the middle of the coil make sure the probe dose not go thought the evaporator coil and in to the heat coil.  

Internally Equalized

Bubble Circular Crimp


EXPANSION VALVES

Also called (TXV) they may be one of two types, externally or internally equalized and they can be either right angle or block style. The expansion valve’s job is to properly meter the right amount of refrigerant entering the evaporator coil. You will find a drier/receiver when these types are used. To troubleshoot problems with the expansion valve you must have the proper set of refrigerant gauges attached to an operating A/C system. 



EVAPORATOR COIL

Also called a heat exchanger, the evaporator coil removes heat from the air that the fan motors pull in then discharges the cold air out of the louvers. The evaporator usually operates between 30 degrees and 40 degrees Fahrenheit and louver temperature is about 10 degrees warmer than the coil. Long duct work may increase the temperature a few degrees more. If the coil becomes plugged with dirt, mud or ice, the air being discharged from the louvers will get warmer. Blow out the coil with compressed air about (60-90 pounds) or wash the coil with water or coil cleaner to insure that there is good air flow thought the coil. Use a fin comb to straighten evaporator coil fins not a screwdriver.

CONDENSOR COIL 

Also called a heat exchanger- removes heat from refrigerant that is in very high pressure, high temperature state, by passing cooler ambient air over the condenser fins. This changes the state of the refrigerant from a gas to a liquid before going to the drier/receiver or accumulator. If the condenser fins get plugged with mud debris or even a fine coating of dirt you will have poor or no cooling out the louvers. Be sure to clean condenser coil with compressed air or wash with water or coil cleaner keep coil fins straight with a fin comb not a screwdriver.

FAN SWITCH & RESISTORS

You will find the fan switch located in the evaporator blower system as in a lot of your aftermarket A/C units, or in the cab console for drop in coils or OEM systems. The fan switch controls the blower motor speeds. On the back of most fan switches you will find five posts. “B”= power, “C”= clutch, “L”= low speed, “M”= medium speed, “H”= high speed. The resistor is used to cut the amount of current to the blower motor so you will have high, medium, and low it will be found in the blower unit that houses the blower motor. (See the section on blower motors & fan wheels for more information on resistors.)

Typical Resistor

Externally Equalized

Typical Orifice Tubes

Preset Thermostat

Typical Fan Switch

Manual Thermostat

RECIRCULATION AIR FILTER

Recirculation air filter will be found inside the operators cab it will be located at the evaporator box it is very important to keep this filter very clean. Most of these filters are made of open cell foam, though some of the new filters are made of paper. Most foam and paper filters can be blown out with 20 to 30 pounds of air pressure. Most foam filters can be washed out with water. Failure to service will cause the evaporator coil to plug up with dirt, mud, debris causing poor or no cooling.

FRESH AIR FILTER

Fresh air filter will be found outside the operators cab it allows clean, fresh air to enter the cab area. Most of these filters are made of paper and filter particles down to about 19 microns. They must be removed and clean daily if the machine is operated more than 10 hours a day. Remember that if your equipment has the capabilities of bringing fresh in to the cab it also brings in the ambient temperature as well. 

DRAIN PAN AND DRAIN LINES

The drain pan collects water from the evaporator coil and channels it out of the cab. If the pan leaks or drain lines become plugged with mud, the water that has condensed off the evaporator coil will enter the cab area. They will need to be flushed with water or compressed air. Check the drain lines for kinks, holes, sharp bends, flat runs or uphill runs.

THE REFRIGERANT OIL

The internal components of an air conditioning system must be properly lubricated with the correct refrigerant oil. There are several types on the market to day; PAG, Ester and mineral make sure you chose the right one for the type of refrigerant that is in the system. The oil is absorbed into the refrigerant that carries it though the compressor as a mist. An oil charge that is over or under can damage the compressor. Compatibility of refrigerant oil is determined by its ability to remain oil when mixed with the refrigerant and not become separated by a chemical reaction. R-12 refrigerant uses a mineral oil 5GS made for that refrigerant and can not be used in R134a systems. An R134a system uses either PAG oil or Ester oil. Note the following: PAG oils absorb moisture 100 times greater than mineral oil (in effect 1% water within 15 hours). Ester oil will mix to 50% with all PAG oil types.

REFRIGERANT LEAKS

Refrigerant leaks can cost lots of down time and money if not found and repaired. A good halogen leak detector will pick up leaks under static conditions; however some will leak only when the system is in operation. There are other ways of finding a refrigerant leak use visual inspection look around the refrigerant fittings & hoses for spots of refrigerant oil and dirt. Check the front clutch plate of the compressor for oil and dirt. If the air condition system is completely empty you may want to use dry nitrogen to pump up the system to hear a leak. Also they have a florescent dye that can be use to detect a leak. Note, to see the dye stain you need a UV lamp and the leak has to be where the light can reach it.  

HOSES & FITTINGS

Refrigerant hoses carry the refrigerant from one component to the next. The hose should be of the barrier type (Twin Eagle Distributing recommends the Goodyear Galaxy hose) for R134a refrigerants and the beadlock style fittings. Most air conditioning systems use the #6 (5/16” ID), #8 (13/32” ID) and #10 (1/2” ID) refrigerant hose. Hoses need to be inspected occasionally for blistering, bulges, dry rot, chaffing, swelling and hardening. Check around hose fittings for traces of oil and dirt that may indicate a refrigerant leak. Keep hoses away from hot spots, moving parts, sharp edges, and oil leaks and watch hose routings on machines that articulate.   

LOW AIR FLOW

The complaint: “it use to blow harder”, Things to check are:


Obstruction at the air return, plug or dirty filter

Debris in the evaporator coil that blocks air circulation 

Icing of the evaporator coil due to bad thermostat switch

Air leak or obstruction in air duct hose

Defective blower relay

Blower wheel loose on motor shaft

Blower wheel rotation wrong 

Blower motor shaft rotation wrong

Low blower motor voltage due to poor ground

Using a 24volt motor on a 12volt system​​​




​​MUST I RECOVER (HFC-134a) REFRIGERANT?

YES! Most defiantly EPA has issued regulations under Section 609 of the Clean Air Act establishing standards and requirements regarding the servicing of motor vehicle air conditioners (MVAC).

Technicians who repair or service “Motor Vehicle Air Conditioners”  must recover the refrigerant and either recycle it on-site, or send it off-site to a reclamation facility so that it may be purified according to ARI Standard  700. Technicians must use EPA-approved equipment to perform the refrigerant recovery and recycling. Technicians who service MVAC or MVAC-like appliances (“Farm & Heavy Equipment”) must be properly trained and certified by an EPA-approved technician certification program set forth in section 82.34, and the description of the specific requirements for approved training and testing set forth in section 82.40.

CHARGING A/C SYSTEM

After you have followed the rules set by EPA rule 609 and made your repair you will need a refrigerant manifold set. Attach the low and high side manifold couplings to the service ports on the A/C system. Attach the middle hose to a good 2 stage vacuum pump turn it on and open both the low and high side manifold wheels. Check the low side gauge to make sure you are going into a vacuum which is achieved when the needle goes below -0. You want to be close to 29.9 inches of vacuum let it run for at least 30 to 45 minutes. Note: that at higher altitudes you will not achieve -29.9 inches of vacuum. If you are above 3,000 feet let the vacuum pump run at least 15 minutes longer. After you have achieved a good vacuum close both high and low side manifold wheels check the low side gauge and note where the needle is. After at least 5 minutes recheck the needle if you are loosing vacuum that will indicate a leak in the A/C system (Repair and Start Evacuation Again). When ready to charge remove the center hose from the vacuum pump and attach it to the refrigerant keg, make sure you purge the center hose at the manifold gauge to let any trapped air out. (Just Crack Open and Close) Charge with vapor only not liquid. Next open the low side manifold wheel you will notice that the high side gauge needle will start to move up away from 0 after the low and high side needle are equalize or close to it, you are now ready to charge. Start the engine and turn the fan speed on high and a/c switch on. Check with the a/c manufactures for how much refrigerant the system requires. If you can’t obtain that information see the section on charging an a/c system using a pressure temperature chart.

CHARGING AN A/C SYSTEM USING PRESSURE TEMPATURE CHART

After following the steps in the section CHARGING AN A/C SYSTEM You will need to take the fresh air intake at the condenser make sure you are reading the cool air coming in not the warm air leaving the condenser. Add 35-40 degrees (F) to the temperature you took at the condenser for example lets use R-134a and the temperature reading was 90 degrees (F) you add 40 degrees (F) that, gives you 130 degrees (F). Look at a R-134a Temperature Pressure Chart find 130 degrees (F) you will find that = 200 PSIG when your high side gauge reads 200 PSI, close the low side manifold wheel that will stop the refrigerant flow entering the system. Take your louver temperature then check the high side gauge if its below 200 PSI add a little more refrigerant to the system till it reaches 200 PSI. Be careful not to over charge the system, check your louver temperature if it rises with the compressor on then that could indicate over charging.

Clockwise/ Counter-Clockwise

One Piece Beadlock Fitting

ORFICE TUBE

An Orifice tube is a fixed metering device located inside the liquid line between the condenser and evaporator. The orifice tube is enclosed with a plastic housing and protected by a fine mesh filter. The filter helps prevent debris from entering the system. Orifice tubes are usually color coded. An accumulator only or accumulator & drier receiver will be used with an orfice tube.  


BLOWER MOTORS & FAN WHEELS

Blower motors control the amount of air across the evaporator coil. If the motor rotation is not correct, or the motor, fan wheel, or resistor (if used) malfunctions, not enough air will be drawn across the evaporator coil and it may freeze up. Broken fan wheels or housing will cause the motor assembly to sound very loud and will need to be replaced. There are usually two types of motors used in a blower system, (Field Wound) it has 4 wires and operated by a fan switch only. Or a (Permanent magnet motor it has only 2 wires and requires a fan switch and a resistor always make sure you have the right motor and resistor for the voltage.